Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Historical Event in Indonesia

ESSAY ABOUT VOC IN INDONESIA



1.       Definition of VOC in Brief
VOC is a trade partnership of Dutch origin who monopolize trade activities in Asia and brings together the spice trade from the eastern region.
As a trade partnership, VOC has various privileges and powers are very wide. Although only a trade partnership alone, VOC is fully supported by the state (the Netherlands) and facilitated preferentially.
For example VOC army and may have entered into agreements with other countries. This is also the reason why VOCs are often referred to as a state within a state.
VOC by the Indonesian people often called the Kumpeni or the Company. Why ? Because the majority of Indonesian people generally easier in the pronunciation (taken from the word compagnie). But people are more familiar Nusantara Company as Dutch troops not as a trade partnership.
That's a bit of a brief explanation of the meaning of the VOC, but it would be nice if my friend understood more broadly VOC. The more insight, more is not better?
2.       Background The birth / establishment of the VOC
A brief background:
    The desire to monopolize trade.
    Eliminate competition between the Dutch and European merchants
Background chronologically:
Merchants from the West came to Indonesia in good faith and begin to form a trade partnership. Over time, the trading partners in the archipelago more and more until there was a competition between trading partners to each other. The competition is getting tougher to not know syndicate fellow nations. This causes loss to the Dutch government because the Dutch traders also mutually hostile.
In this connection, in 1598 the government and the Dutch Parliament (Staten Generaal) especially Johan van Oldenbarneveldt proposes to establish trade partnership larger by forming a trading company, as has been done by the United Kingdom (EIC) and France (the French East India Company in 1604).
The proposal was well received, and on March 20, 1602 established trade partnership "Guild East Indies Company" or better known as VOC (Vereenidge Oostindische Compagnie).
3.       Then, What objective of establishing VOC?
The purpose of establishing VOC, as stated in the January 15, 1602 negotiations is to "bring disaster to the enemy and to the security of the homeland". The purpose of the enemy at the time was the Spanish and Portuguese allied to seize power domination in Asia during the period between June 1580 - December 1640.
The other destinations are:
     Help fund the Dutch government.
     Mastering kingdoms in Indonesia.
     Mastering important ports in Indonesia.
     Avoid unfair competition that would harm the Dutch traders.
     Gain as much as possible to finance the war against Spain.
     Strengthen the Dutch position that does not match the Portuguese and other European nations.
     In order to monopolize trade in the archipelago is mainly monopolized the spice.
4.       Why Jayakarta chosen as the center position of the VOC?
This is why ...
    Jayakarta more strategic compared to Ambon because it is located in the middle of Asia trade lane.
    Jayakarta facilitate VOC rid of the Portuguese in the waterway.
At first, the Dutch people to be nice to people. Good attitude of the people also used the VOC to strengthen its position in the archipelago. Over time, the attitude of the Dutch turn out to be arrogant, conceited and greedy. Due to feel the pleasure of living in the archipelago, Netherlands more eager to master and justifies any means, such as force and violence for the sake of profit.
Such attitudes make the hatred of the people, and in 1618 the Sultan of Banten assisted British troops under admiral Thomas Dale drove the VOC of the White Rose. After VOC eliminated, then the people drive the English from jayakarta in 1619, and finally Jayakarta controlled by the Banten sultanate.
When JP. Coen was sworn in as governor-general, he began to carry out the action. He was very cruel and ambitious. Feeling humiliated nation Banten and the UK, he prepares troops to attack Jayakarta. 18 warships surrounded the last Jayakarta membumihanguskannya on May 30, 1619.
Once destroyed, the Dutch set up the city back in style cities and buildings in the Netherlands. Jayakarta missing, and emerging new town called Batavia.
Governor General of VOC that can be said of other successful business development in trade and colonialism in Indonesia, including:
    Jan Pieterszoon Coen: Batavia founder and originator of Dutch colonialism and imperialism in Indonesia.
    Anthony van Diemen: Expanding the VOC to Malacca in 1641 and sent a mission voyage to Australia and New Zealand.
    Joan Maetsuycker: Extending the power to Padang, Semarang and Manado.
    Cornelis Speelman: Beating resistance Sultan Hasanuddin of Makassar, relieve rebel Trunojoyo in Mataram, and beat Sultan Tirtayasa.
Implementation of the system of government by implementing VOC system of indirect rule by exploiting feudal system that has developed in the archipelago.
5.       The establishment of the Brief History of VOC
A voyage through the sea lanes by explorers for profit and wealth in the end is reached. Various objectives can be said to be successful after finding the spice-producing areas in the archipelago. In the beginning, Europeans came to East and Southeast Asia (including the archipelago) is to trade, including with the Dutch.
The trade mission, followed by forming colonization (political settlements) with kingdoms in Sumatra, Java, and the Moluccas. It then became the forerunner of colonization in Indonesia.
In 1591, the Portuguese cooperation with Germany, Spain and Italy using the City of Hamburg as a major port. The town used to distribute goods from Asia and move the trade lanes from being passed through the Netherlands.
This makes the Portuguese trading inefficient and unable to supply the high demand, especially pepper. Gradually the price of pepper jumped dramatically at the time.
Due to a variety of factors, the Dutch finally decided to go into the world spice trade. Dutch expedition was started, until January Huygen van Linschoten and Cornelis de Houtman found the "secret path". The discovery of a secret path to success for the Netherlands, particularly the success of Cornelis de Houtman on expeditions.
After the discovery of these pathways, the Dutch began an expedition back in 1596 and stopped in Banten which is the main port on the island of Java (1595-1597). The expedition led by Cornelis is the first contact between Indonesia and the Netherlands.
When he arrived at Banten, The Netherlands got the feud of the Portuguese and the local population. Dutch back and then continue its journey eastward through the northern coast of Java. The trip does not go smoothly, the Dutch attacked the local population in Sedayu (12 crew died) and received hostility from local residents Madura (local leader killed).
Because many of the victims, the Dutch finally return to his country by bringing the spices as profits are abundant.
Cornelis return of his country to lead the Dutch people flocked to the archipelago to trade for profit. Increasingly hectic Dutch traders in the archipelago led to increasingly fierce trade competition.
Portuguese traders compete with Spanish traders, merchants Spain to compete with England, United compete with the Dutch, and so on until the matter between nations competing.
Increasing number of traders of foreign nations, certainly not good for profit. It eventually be handled through cooperation to form a trade partnership in order to strengthen its position in "the East". Each trade partnership of a country formed a trade alliance together.
The British formed a trading company Asia on December 31, 1600 and was named "The British East India Company" (often called EIC), based in Calcutta, India. From Calcutta, strength and wisdom in "the East" controlled. Even in 1811, Britain's position is so strong and pervasive even once managed to put power in the archipelago.
Intense competition also applies to trade between the Netherlands traders. Antar trading partners want to obtain the maximum profit while competitors are traders of their own country.
It received a serious response from the Dutch government, because it is not impossible that the Dutch would be losers.
In respect of the incident, in 1598 the government and the Dutch Parliament (Staten Generaal), especially Johan van Oldenbarneveldt proposes to establish a larger trading partners, by establishing a trading company as has been done by the UK and France.
This proposal was welcomed and well-executed four years later, in March 20, 1602 to spend the first capital of about 6.5 billion guilders. Trade partnership was later named VOC (Vereenidge Oostindische Compagnie) and in the Indonesian language means "Guild East India Company", which is based in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The establishment of the VOC certainly have different purposes. Not home-made origin.


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